How to teach children Persian


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1 Get fairy tales and storybooks in Persian on Amazon or from your local library

Children love shared reading time and regardless of language acquisition they will always remember the time they spent with you reading books.Try to find books with good illustrations. Look at the pictures with your child, point to things they already know in Persian.

As you come across new words ask the child what they think it is. If it is illustrated, have them point it out on the page.Use different voices for different characters.If your child has a favorite Persian story encourage him/her to play different characters making up the words from memory. Help your child to use his/her imagination to change the story or change the ending.

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2 Use puppets or turn your child’s favorite plush toy into a puppet that talks in Persian

Kids love puppets and puppet play is great for motor skills. You can tell much loved stories through puppet play, either using the whole body or make a puppet theatre from a box and use hand or finger puppets. Finger puppets are also fun when singing songs.

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3 Go to the zoo and call the name of the animals together in Persian

If you have any, look at some animal books together, then go to the zoo for the day. Ask your child the names of the animals he/she has learned and point out the new ones. This is a great place to add in adjectives and colours. When you come home, encourage your child to draw pictures of what he/she saw and talk about them together using Persian.

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4 Play hide and seek by counting in Persian

Hide and seek is a great game for practicing numbers. You could start with 1 to 10 and gradually increase. When your child knows them well you could count down backwards. When ‘seeking’ your child it’s a good opportunity to repeat words without it sounding repetitive.

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5 Play board games in Persian e.g.: snakes and ladders, board games, family games

Dice games are always good for counting and also simple addition. Board games played with the whole family can be a time for relaxed learning. Just playing a simple board game such as snakes and ladders teaches a young child so much more than just language. They also learn rules of play, understanding goals and of course, that family games equal FUN!

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6 Play games by using flashcard games e.g.: Go fish, memory game

Flashcards are one of your most valuable resources in teaching language to young children. With multiples of the same cards you can play well-known games such as Go Fish or the ‘memory game’.

Very small children may struggle to hold too many cards, so play games that have the child match one card to another. Match a sound with a picture, or two cards that have the same sound, or two pictures that match, any way you choose.

Lay cards out on the floor or table and have your child touch the card as you call out words/sounds. Encourage your child to be the caller and you touch the cards. Keep it playful and fun.



7 Have a progress chart that tracks the words and phrases your child mastered

A simple progress chart teaches your child clear goals and kids love stickers. Let your child know when he/she is approaching a goal, make a big deal of reaching the goals, be excited to getting the stickers out. Praise him/her for their achievement with a ‘great job’, a hug or a ‘high five’ (or all three).


8 Listen to children’s songs in Persian together or reward your child for memorizing a short one

Listen to children’s songs in the 2nd language whenever and wherever you can. Keep CDs in the car or put a CD on quietly in the background when you are doing something else. Add actions to the songs, this helps kids remember the words. If it suits your child’s personality, encourage them to ‘perform’ songs for you. You could have a special ‘song night’.

Here is a playlist of Persian children’s songs


9 Listen to pop songs in Persian together or reward your child for memorizing a short one

Teach your child some catchy pop songs that you both like. Something with suitable lyrics and a good chorus are easiest to remember. Sing it around the house as you do other things, when your child tries to join in, model the language and encourage them to sing with you.


10 Find cartoons in the 2nd language on Youtube or Amazon

Cartoons are a great way to engage kids in the 2nd language. Kids can figure out the story visually without worrying about not understanding every word. It’s easy to buy DVDs from Amazon in almost any language or, alternatively, look for them on YouTube. Let your child guide you to which cartoons they like best. Watch them together and you will know which language to reinforce.


11 Have an annual/monthly goal check list

Make a checklist of goals or ideas of where you want to be with the language learning over a year. Break it down into monthly mini-goals.

It will be help you stay focused on where you are going and also a great way to look back and see how far you and your child have come.


12 Create youtube playlists or find playlists suitable for your child’s level

YouTube is a super resource. You can create playlists of Persian teaching videos, these days people post from all over the world.

They might be short tutorials, or craft ideas you can incorporate into your language learning, or children’s songs you can sing together. Look for playlists already put together by others with the same goal.


13 Join online support groups (forums, facebook pages, twitter lists, multicultural blog groups etc.)

Join some online groups to exchange ideas and information. Support is invaluable too. Teaching Persian can hit some hurdles, it is important to be able to connect with people who are having the same difficulties or have successfully navigated these hurdles. Facebook and Twitter are great for immediate connections. Online chat groups or forums can give you a sense of community and common goals.

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14 Visit the website of Iran’s ministry of culture

Have a look at the website and find interesting information about Iran. Read about traditional food, dances and costumes. Look at statistics such as population. Find some fun facts about the climate, holidays and customs. Talk about them with your child and follow their lead on which parts they are interested in. You can also get all this information and more here

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15 Go to public libraries and check all the available resources in Persian

Libraries are an excellent resource. If they don’t have things things in Persian ask the librarian if it is possible to order them. Also check out the noticeboard and see if there are any kids groups speaking Persian in the area. You might make some new friends too.


16 Make use of language learning DVDs for kids

Language DVDs come handy , especially fro busy parents, as they repeat useful words and phrases in a fun and interesting way Check them out, Look for something that is specifically for kids, that uses games and songs and has well-structured levels.


17 Play CDs when driving your child to school

Always play CDs in Persian when you are in the car. It could be songs or a kids’ language learning CD, whatever your child likes. Do it consistently so your child comes to expect the 2nd language in the car.


18 Play streaming radio in the background at home or make use of Spotify, Lastfm, etc.

Nowadays, there are a lot of resources that help you play streaming radio through personal electronic devices and laptops, etc. All you need is tuning into one of the local radio stations and have the radio or the song list play in the background all day long. Even if your child does not understand what has been spoken or the lyrics of the songs he/she will get used to the new sounds and intonation patterns.

19 Make use of worksheets for beginners

There are a great many websites offering worksheets for beginners. Many are free and some you can pay monthly or a yearly fee. Kids love worksheets. Some may be simple coloring sheets (kids LOVE coloring), or sheets that help fine motor skills through pencil manipulation. Buy some stickers and put one on each sheet your child completes.


20 Make use of Flashcards

There is no end to the fun to be had from playing games with flashcards even if you child is still too young to play a game that has structure and rules. You can make your own ‘games’ call out a card, have your child touch it/pick it up. ‘Hide’ the cards around the room and have your child find them and say what they are etc.

You can also put the flashcards up around the room. Change them each week in categories (animals/flowers/ fruit/etc. Look at them and say them often with your child. Ask them, “What’s this? / What’s that?”

Put them on your fridge with magnets or let your child do this.You call out the words and have them put them on.


21 Get a picture dictionary to get started

A Children’s picture dictionary is a wonderful resource. Follow your child’s curiosity with it. Let him/her choose what he/she wants to know on any given day. Ask him/her more information about the words they do know. “What color is it?” “ Is it big or small? “ “Where does it live?” “What does it do?”


22 Consider getting an alphabet book

Introduce your child to the shapes of letters with a simple alphabet book. This is especially useful if the Persian alphabet is different to that of the 1st language. For young learners, get a very simple, ‘starter’ book, also great for fine motor skills and pencil control.


23 Think about kinesthetic learning (learning by doing). Coloring books, sketchbooks or DVDs that children watch and dance are great!

The research is in that kids learn best by doing (don’t we all?).

Anything that gets kids moving their bodies or their hands helps them to learn. Watch DVDs together, make up dances, put on ‘shows’, even dress up. Encourage your child’s inner artist with a sketchbook. Color, paint, draw, and talk about the colors and your child’s pictures in the 2nd language. Coloring in pictures is a very relaxing activity (you should do it too!) Kids tend to be very relaxed when they are coloring, a good time to make some general chitchat in Persian.

Mix paints and talk in Persian about how colors are made.


24 Consider getting a reading pen

The very latest translation tool. A ‘reading pen’ scans and translates. The translated text appears on a small screen on the pen and can also provide audio pronunciation of words or full sentences.


25 Find some talking or singing plush toys

There are so many talking toys on the market these days. Try one that says greetings in Persian (or multiple languages) or one that sings traditional songs/nursery rhymes from Iran.

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26 Make use of culture books prepared for little kids

Ready made ‘culture books’ are great for learning about different countries. Read them together, ask questions and encourage your child to ask lots of questions too. After reading one, you could make a simple one together using pictures from magazines, or encourage your child to draw pictures too. Gather information together at the library or from the internet.

27 Decorate your child’s room with learning posters (colors, numbers) or pictures from Iran (flag, the cities, etc.)

Get some large colorful posters to decorate your child’s room or the learning space you use. Point things out and ask questions, swap roles and have your child ask the questions too, this also helps model the pronunciation. Ask which is your child’s favorite poster and why?

Follow their lead on the things that interest them.


28 Follow a simple syllabus prepared for kids

Use the simple syllabus prepared in your language learning system or make one yourself. Let your child know what it is so he/she can see what they will be doing. Children tend to do better when they know what is coming and what is expected of them.

29 Use stickers as rewards (stickers that say congratulations, wonderful, etc. in the 2nd language)

Kids love stickers! Use them liberally. Take praising your child as an opportunity to use the 2nd language. If you can find stickers with words of praise in the 2nd language use those and repeat the words a lot. Use a couple of words at first and add more as your child knows them.

30 Get some printed items related to the 2nd language: T-shirts, mugs, children’s silverware, etc.

If you have the opportunity to visit the 2nd language country buy goods with the language on. T-shirts, mugs and pens are useful as well as educational. Look for postcards, posters or bumper stickers with popular expressions on. Post these around your house.


31 Arrange play dates or playgroups with other parents who want to teach their children Persian.

Try to find other parents encouraging their children to learn Persian, arrange to play together, go on picnics to the park or take a trip to a zoo or aquarium, great places to practice the language. Making new friends is of great benefit to you too!



32 Video chat with friends and relatives who have a child that speaks Persian

Encourage video chat with other children you know, that speak Persian. It’s easy using Skype or Google Hangouts or something similar. Be nearby to help the conversation along. Be encouraging and resist the temptation to correct your child’s mistakes.



33 Invite Grandma and Grandpa (who can speak Persian) to stay over

Spending time with grandparents is valuable to all parties anyway but spending time with grandparents who speak Persian is great for strengthening bonds and hearing natural language. Your child will come to associate Persian with feelings of love and security.


34 Hire a short-term or full time nanny or caregiver that speaks Persian

If it is possible, consider hiring a nanny/caregiver/babysitter who speaks Persian. Even a few hours per week would make a difference (and give you a little free time!).

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35 Cook Persian recipes together with your child

Kids always want to be a ‘little helper’ in the kitchen. Cook some simple dishes from Iran together. Us the 2nd language for instructions, wash, cut, wipe, mix…. Name the ingredients in a natural way as you cook. Here are some Persian recipes

36 Go to community centers, cultural centers and temples with your child

Local places of interest are stimulating for your child and cultural centers often have exhibitions or music/dance performances. Look out for anything from Iran. Community centers are a great place to meet people, look at notice boards for anything from people interested or connected in some way to, Persian. You could even offer to do something yourself, give a talk about the country or a traditional dance etc.

37 Visit Persian supermarkets and Persian restaurants with your child

Go around a Persian supermarket and point out the foods from Iran. If your child is unfamiliar with them, ask questions. “How do you think it tastes?” “ Do you think this is hard/soft/crunchy/sweet/etc.?” If possible eat in ethnic restaurants. Talk about the food, how it is prepared, where it comes from.


38 Have a word of the day activity

Pick a ‘word of the day’, you or your child could choose it, or have your child pick it at random from a pile of word cards. If the word is a noun, look for it around the house and when you go outside. Talk about where it might be found. If it is a verb, find ways to do the action either really or mime it, see if you can spot other people doing it? Or use adverbs and spend some time doing everything in the manner of the adverb, slowly/quickly/happily/etc.

39 Play Persian online language games (memory, click&tell, etc.) with your child

There are plenty of free online interactive language games for children. Find one that appeals to your child and encourage them to do a little every day. You can check out 3 different kinds of free Persian online language learning games here



40 Try Skype lessons for children (may not be advised for infants and toddlers)

Many teachers are offering language lessons via Skype. Ask around and see if anyone can recommend a teacher to you. Sit in on the lesson too so you know what language to reinforce between lessons.



41 Read bedtime stories in Persian to your child

Books, books, books. Kids love books and stories. Read stories in Persian before bed. Often when kids have heard a favorite story many times they know the words. Encourage your child to help tell the story.

42 Play Persian children’s games

Many children’s games are the same the world over, play kids games your child already knows in their 1st language but play it in the 2nd language. Paper, rock, scissors has many variations; play it in the 2nd language. Hopscotch, skipping games, clapping games etc. can all be played in any language. For more ideas have a look at the games in the different ‘countries and cultures’ at Dino Lingo (to the right of this post).

43 Get comic books & children’s magazines from Iran

Ask if a friend or relative overseas can send you comics or children’s magazines in Persian. Children’s magazines usually have lots of fun facts in them that you can talk about and further research. They also have quizzes and puzzles that are lots of fun to do.

44 Go to a national parade of the target culture

You could try to find where there is a large community of people from the target culture. They will no doubt have special events to celebrate the holidays of their country of origin. Take your child to their parades and festivals.


45 Have a personalized notebook specially used for learning the2nd language(Don’t forget to use it to have your child draw whatever you say in the 2nd language

Let your child choose the notebook at the shop and decorate it anyway they want to make it special. Say words in Persian and have them draw pictures, or even write the word or the first letter, depending on what level they are at. Go back over the pictures every few days. Talk about the pictures and praise your child’s drawing skills.

46 Do local crafts

If you are a native speaker of Persian think about the crafts you did as a child and do them with your child (think also about how happy you were doing this activity with your own mother/father or your friends). Don’t worry if you have forgotten how, look on the Internet to refresh your memory. Perhaps you could send something your child makes to grandparents or relatives overseas.

47 Use chatting apps (WhatsApp, Line, etc.) to talk with friends and family who have same-aged children

Chatting apps are mobile and easy to use. Chat with friends in the 2nd who have children about the same age. Encourage your child to chat with them and their kids too. Ask their kids about themselves, their day etc. and encourage your child to talk about themselves.


48 Sing lullabies in the 2nd language to put your baby asleep

Lullabies are so soothing for baby and parent. Sing some Persian lullabies to help your baby sleep. You can buy wind-up crib music at a baby store. Play the music and sing in the Persian. Establish is as a routine and enjoy the time holding your baby and knowing you are soothing him/her.


49 Consider homeschooling by getting an online curriculum

More and more people are turning to homeschooling these days and there are plenty of resources online. Do some research and find something that suits you and your child. Depending on the school hours where you live, it may be possible for your child to attend the local school and follow a homeschooling curriculum.


50 Send your child to a summer camp where he/she can study Persian in a short time.

Summer camp is a great experience for children. It is often their first extended time away from home and a chance to make lots of new friends and try a variety of activities for the first time. ‘Language’ camps for kids usually incorporate study with lots of games/crafts/activities related to the 2nd language culture. Look online or on the notice board in community centers and other public buildings.

 Persian children’s books

Babylonian Tree, Persian children's books, learning Persian story for children

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Persian Travel Destinations – Persian Culture for Kids

Qeshm Island is Iran’s largest and the Persian Gulf’s largest island. It is famous for its Hara marine forests where 1.5% of the world’s birds and 25% of Iran’s native birds annually migrate.

Susa (Shush) located north of Ahvaz was Iran’s most ancient city. The Zigurat of Chughazanbil, Darius the Great’s palace, the Jewish prophet Daniel’s temple, and Artaxerxer II’s palace are among the historical sites you can see.

Pasargad is the first capital of the Achaemenid Empire and
home to the Tomb of Cyrus.

Tehran is the vibrant capital.

Kermanshah is one of the oldest cities in Iran with a great anthropological heritage. Taqe
bostan and Bistoon are two of its
world-known sites.

Isfahan is the former capital with beautiful architecture and tree-lined boulevards. It is the most popular tourist destination in the country. There’s a Persian saying “Isfahan is half the world”.

Kerman is the provincial capital, one of Iran’s oldest cities, and a major center for carpets.

Mashad is a large city in Eastern Iran with an important mosque and the shrine of the martyr Imam Reza Qom. It is considered one of the holiest cities in the Middle East and the “Jewel of Iran”.

Shiraz is a former capital and home of famous Persian poets. It is known for gardens. The city is very close to the famous ruins of Persepolis. Persepolis is the symbol of Iranian nationality. The city-like complex was built over 2.500 years ago.  It was set on fire by Alexander of Macedon and further ruined by the Arabs.

Bushehr is one of the first civilized cities in Iran. This city is where the Iranian nuclear power plant is located. It is also known for its very long and spectacular coastline neighboring the Persian Gulf.

Tabriz is the provincial capital in Western Iran.  It has been suggested that this is
the site of the Biblical “Garden of Eden”.

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Persian Common Words and Phrases – Persian Culture for Kids

These are some common phrases and words that you can practice.



Good Morning

Sobh Be Khevr

Good Evening

Asr Be Khevr


Khosh Amadid

How are you

Shooma chetor hastin

Thank you very much


You’re welcome

Khahesh Mikonam

See you later

Ba’adan mibinamet

Good bye

Khoda Hafez

What’s your name

Esm e shoma chist

My name is

Esm e man

Nice to meet you

Az molaghat e sham khosh vaghtam

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Persian Alphabet – Persian Culture for Kids

The Persian language is part of the Indo-European language family and is one of the world’s oldest languages still in use today. It has a rich literary tradition with many noted poets.  The people who speak Persian call the language Fārsī which is the Arabic form of Parsi. Persian is a member of the Iranian branch of Indo-European languages spoken by about 130 million people mainly in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan. There are also large numbers

of speakers in many other countries including Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Turkey, Kuwait, Azerbaijan, Israel, Turkmenistan, Oman, Yemen, the United Arab Emirates and the United States. The language was renamed from Farsi to Dari in Afghanistan during the 1960s. The dialect of Persian spoken in Tajikistan is called Tajiki. There are additional languages besides Persian spoken in other parts of Iran.  These languages include Azeri, Kurdish, Arabic, Balochi and Turkmen.

The Persian language has been written with a number of different scripts including the Old Persian CuneiformPahlaviAramaic, and AvestanCyrillic and Latin alphabets. After the Islamic conquest of the Persian Sassanian Empire in 642 AD, Arabic became the language of government, culture and especially religion. Modern Persian appeared during the 9th century. It is written in a version of the Arabic script and is full of words of Arabic origin. There are also two methods of writing Persian with the Latin alphabet.  Under Mongolian and Turkish rulers, Persian was adopted as the language of government in Turkey, central Asia and India, where it was used for centuries and until after 1900 in Kashmir.

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Persian Baby Names – Persian Culture for Kids

A Persian or Iranian name is made up of a first name and then the last name of the family.

Sometimes more than one first name is given.  Many names are taken from Arabic, Greek, Assyrian and Armenian names.  About 10-15% of the names come from a Persian literature book known as Shahnameh which means Epic of the Kings. This book written in the 10th century is highly valued by Iranians and considered a masterpiece of Persian literature. Some examples of suggested first names in this book include Abtin, Ardeshir, Armeen, Arzhang, Babak, Bijan, Bizhan, Bozorgmehr, Darab, Esfandiar, Esfandyar, Faramarz, Farhad, Fariborz, Farshid and Farzad.

Before the use of surnames (family names), people were known by the district, city, town or village from where they came from.  Different beginnings and endings were put on the first names. Today, Persians use first and last names. Below is a list of common boys’ names, girls’ names and surnames.

Boys’ Names
Abbas · Abolfazl · Abdollah · Ahmad · Ali · Ali Reza · Amir · Arash · Ardeshir


Dariush · Davoud

Ebrahim · Ehsan · Eskandar · Esmail

Farhad · Farshid


Habib · Hamed · Hashem · Hassan · Hossein

Jamshid · Javad

Kamran · Karim · Kazem · Kourosh

Mahmoud · Majid · Manuchehr · Masoud · Mehdi Meysam · Milad · Mohammad ·   Mohsen · Mostafa



Rahman · Rasoul · Reza

Saeed · Samir · Shahin


Yaghoub · Yahya · Younes · Yousef

Girls’ Names

Anousheh · Astar · Azadeh

Farnaz · Farzaneh · Fatemeh · Fereshteh


Laleh  · Leila

Mahshid · Maryam · Mina

Nasrin · Nazanin · Niloufar

Parisa · Parvin

Reyhan · Roksaneh · Roya

Sara · Simin



Zahra · Zaynab

Common Surnames (Last names)

Abbasi · Abed · Akbari · Alizadeh

Ebrahimi · Esfahani



Jafari · Jamshidi

Kazemi · Khadem · Khorasani

Madani · Mazandarani · Mohammadi · Mokri

Pahlavi · Paria

Rahimi · Rezaei

Salehi · Shirazi


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Persian History – Persian Culture for Kids

The history of Iran is a mix of dynasties and invaders from the Greeks, Arabs, Turks, Mongols and others.  It is one of the world’s oldest civilizations with historical and city remnants dating back to 4000 B.C.

The Medes made the country one nation in 645 B.C.  The Achaemenid Empire (550-330 B.C.) was the first Iranian empire to rule a large region that stretched from the Balkans to North Africa and also Central Asia.  Their capital was Persis (Persepolis).

Next came the Seleucid Empire, followed by the Parthians and the Sassanids.  The Sassanids governed Iran for about 1,000 years.  The Islamic conquest of Persia in the 600’s ended the Sassanid Empire.  The Islam religion spread through Iran from the 8th-10th century.  It led to the decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Persia.

After hundreds of years of other countries and dynasties ruling the land, Iran was once again reunified as an independent state in 1501 by the Safavid Dynasty.  They made Shi’a Islam the official religion of their empire.  Iran was a monarchy ruled by a shah or emperor for almost 500 years, from 1501 until 1979.  The Iranian Revolution allowed Iran to become an Islamic Republic on April 1, 1979.

From 1979, the country became a republic called the Islamic Republic of Iran. A Supreme Leader rules the country. Ali Khamenei has served in this position since 1989 having been the President of Iran from 1981-1989.  A President is elected to be second in command by the people of this country. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad leads Iran as the sixth president.

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Persian Inventions and Discoveries – Persian Culture for Kids

Persia with its long history has invented many things.  From domesticating the goat

and chicken, to the invention of the brick, wine, the lute which led to the guitar, the

ziggurat, first banking system and systems of checks to peaches and tulips, the game of backgammon, polo, taxation system, the courier post, spinach cultivation, ancient refrigerators, ice cream, batteries, original

excavation of a Suez Canal, the teaching hospital, the cookie,

the windmill, use of alcohol in medicine, algebra and trigonometry and wind catchers, the country has left its mark on the world.



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Persian Cuisine – Persian Culture for Kids


Bread is the most important food in Iran.  It is baked in large clay ovens.  Many
dishes are made from dairy products.  Yogurt is a popular food as well as rice dishes that include meats, vegetables and seasonings. Lamb is a typical food.

Iranians love the dessert baklava and, of course, tea.   There are many traditional tea-houses throughout the country where different teas, desserts and regional foods are served.

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Persian Holidays and Traditions – Persian Culture for Kids

The Persian year begins in the vernal equinox around March 20th when the daylight and night fall are the same length. The Persian Calendar is the official calendar of Iran and Friday is the weekly day of rest. A typical work week is from Saturday to Wednesday.

Some of the major public holidays in Iran include Oil Nationalization Day (March 21), Nowruz—New Years Day (March 31), the Prophet’s Birthday and Imam Sadeq (June 4), and the Death of Imam Khomeini (June 5). Additional holidays include The Anniversary of the Uprising against the Shah (January 30), Ashoura (February 11), Victory of the 1979 Islamic Revolution (April 2), Sizdah-Bedar—Public Outing Day to end Nowrooz (April 1), and Islamic Republic Day (January 20).

Persian weddings are quite different from western weddings.  There is a legal process that takes place earlier in the day and then the wedding reception follows.  The reception lasts for about 3-7 days. The mother of the bride passes down a beautiful spread made of cashmere, satin or silk to her daughter. Several traditional items are placed on the spread to include a mirror, candlesticks, seven herbs and spices, flatbread, a basket of eggs, decorated nuts, a basket of pomegranates and apples, a cup of rose water, a bowl of sugar, etc.  Each of these items is a symbol of something important for the married couple.

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Persian Arts and Creativity – Persian Culture for Kids

Iran has one of the richest histories of art in the world.  The people are strong in architecture, painting, weaving, pottery, statues, calligraphy, metal work, and stone masonry. Persian rugs have always been part of the culture. They were the first people to weave carpets in history. Today, Iran makes more carpets than any other country in the world.

The Persian Garden was designed as a reflection of paradise on earth. These gardens can be seen in Persian architecture, in the ruins of Iran and in their paintings.

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