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What to do when bilingual kids mix languages (code-switching, a.k.a. code-mixing)


What to do when bilingual kids mix languages (code-switching, a.k.a. code-mixing)

• Don’t worry if your child mixes languages—language mixing is a common (and typically short-lived) phase of bilingual development.

• Trust your child is not confused—she may not know (or be able to explain) that she’s using two languages, but there’s plenty of evidence to suggest that she has two linguistic systems.

• Understand a bit about how and why children mix when evaluating your child’s language use.

• Minority languages may need extra support, and frequent use of both languages together can make it difficult to keep an eye on the support for each language.

• Set realistic expectations for your young learner—there are no perfect bilinguals in the world, and remember that language learning is a lifelong process—it’s never done.

Source: King, K., & Mackey, A. (2007). The bilingual edge: Why, when, and how to teach your child a second language. New York: Collins  (p.184)


How to motivate children to learn a 2nd language (p.267)

how to motivate children to learn a second language


About Dino Lingo

Dino Lingo, language for children. Award winning language DVDs, books, CDs, flash cards, songs,  online videos and games for kids. Dino Lingo language lessons make learning fun for children and easy for parents. Now, babies and children can master any language. Available in 20 languages.

Visit Dino Lingo to learn more about available language learning programs for your child!

Language learning process of children


1395110_crying_boyLanguage learning process of children 

Birth: Early crying, babies’ attempt to communicate

5 months: Cooing, making sounds like ga-ga, gu-gu

1st birthday: a few words like doggie, milk, dada

18 months~24 months: 2-word phrases such as eat now or baby cry

2 years~: Acquisition of  about 200 new words a month

2.5 years: 3-word sentences such as no want carrots

5 years: Understanding and correct production of grammar


About Dino Lingo

Dino Lingo, language for children. Award winning language DVDs, books, CDs, flash cards, songs,  online videos and games for kids. DinoLingo language lessons make learning fun for children and easy for parents.Now, babies and children can master any language. Available in over 40 languages.

Visit Dino Lingo to learn more about available language learning programs for your child!

Visit Dino Lingo to learn more about available language learning programs for your child!

Do Baby Signs Programs (Sign Language) Make Smarter Babies?


Baby Sign language does NOT make babies smarter

Do Baby Signs Programs (Sing Language) Make Smarter Babies? (p.51)

To investigate the question of whether baby signs programs help children acquire language earlier or advance their cognitive development, in 2003 researchers J. C. Johnston and colleagues examined seventeen recent studies of baby signing. Johnston found that the studies did not support the big claims made by the infancy industry, that baby signs help make babies smarter or acquire other languages sooner. Many of the studies they scrutinized only looked at a few children, had poor follow-up (they didn’t look at their language development for long enough periods of time), and little detail (for example, not enough information on how often the parents and children signed), and overall, the industry’s claims went much too far. What’s more, the researchers noted that “parents can be stressed by the challenges of meeting demands of work, caring for a young child, and other family and personal obligations, and experience guilt if they feel they are not doing everything recommended by infancy specialists and the infancy industry.”

Source: King, K., & Mackey, A. (2007). The bilingual edge: Why, when, and how to teach your child a second language. New York: Collins

About Dino Lingo

Dino Lingo, language for children. Award winning language DVDs, books, CDs, flash cards, songs,  online videos and games for kids. DinoLingo language lessons make learning fun for children and easy for parents.Now, babies and children can master any language. Available in 20 languages.

Select the language you want your child to speak and enjoy the ride.

Visit Dino Lingo to learn more about available language learning programs for your child!

Visit Dino Lingo to learn more about available language learning programs for your child!

 

Language and Young Children (Ages 0–2) : How to Teach Toddlers and Infants a Language


Creating Good Language Learning Environments for Very Young Children (Ages 0–2) (p. 63)

  1. • Direct lots of rich, meaningful speech toward your child from birth.
  2. • Encourage friends, relatives, babysitters, siblings, and other visitors to speak and play with your child in the second language.
  3. • Engage in interactions that pique your child’s interests—for example, by using attention-grabbing toys, picture cards, or other props while you use the language.
  4. • Build up positive associations by singing and dancing to silly songs, listening to music, and playing games in the language.
  5. • Read stories to your child. Interact both with the book and with your child (for example, by acting out the stories and using funny faces and voices). Keep this light, fun, and brief.
  6. • When you’re looking for child care, find someone who speaks the second language.
Source: King, K., & Mackey, A. (2007). The bilingual edge: Why, when, and how to teach your child a second language. New York: Collins

About Dino Lingo

Dino Lingo, language for children. Award winning language DVDs, books, CDs, flash cards, songs,  online videos and games for kids. DinoLingo language lessons make learning fun for children and easy for parents.Now, babies and children can master any language. Available in 20 languages.

Select the language you want your child to speak and enjoy the ride.

Visit Dino Lingo to learn more about available language learning programs for your child!

Visit Dino Lingo to learn more about available language learning programs for your child!

 

What to do when children reject to speak in the 2nd language (e.g. Spanish)


What to do when children reject to speak in the 2nd language (e.g. Spanish)

Cases that worked (from Bilingual Edge p. 244-245)

“• Anna (mother of Javier, age five): “We’ve had the most success using reverse psychology. Javier is super strong-willed and it’s actually helped at times to say to him something like ‘Spanish is only for grown-ups.’ Nothing makes him want to use it more than thinking he can’t.”

• Lucinda (stepmother of Matilda, age four): “Matilda went through phases of responding to us in English when we would use Portuguese with her. We just made a point of continuing in Portuguese. We didn’t switch to English, but we didn’t make a huge deal about it either and eventually the phases passed and she started using more Portuguese again.”

• Fabio (father of Lorenzo, age six, and Alessandro, age four): “I decided to turn speaking Italian into a game. The three of us took turns being the ‘English policeman’ each day. The policeman’s job was to fine whoever was caught speaking English. The penalty was ten cents into a jar. It made sticking with Italian more fun for everyone and really helped—at the end of the month we’d go out for pizza with our earnings.”

• Maria (mother of Samantha, age three): “When Sammy was little I would just pretend I didn’t understand English. She had to use French in order to get what she wanted. As she got older, she realized pretty fast that I understood English perfectly well. I don’t ignore her requests in English now, but ask her to say it in French in the same way most parents ask their kids to say please or thank you. I’ve explained to her that this is our special secret language that only the two of us know, so we want to make sure we practice it.”

• Cristina (mother of Jason, age nine, and Sandra, age six): “Once the kids got to be about four, we instituted a ‘beeping policy.’ Even though Spanish is my second language, my husband (who is from Venezuela) and I decided to make Spanish the only language of our house. Instead of nagging them, or saying, ‘Speak Spanish’ a hundred times a day, we ‘beep’ each other if we are caught speaking in English. The kids love to ‘beep’ us and shout ‘BEEP!’ if they catch me using English with my husband. It’s made a huge difference in keeping Spanish the only language of our house.””

Source: King, K., & Mackey, A. (2007). The bilingual edge: Why, when, and how to teach your child a second language. New York: Collins



About Dino Lingo

Dino Lingo, language for children. Award winning language DVDs, books, CDs, flash cards, songs,  online videos and games for kids. DinoLingo language lessons make learning fun for children and easy for parents.Now, babies and children can master any language. Available in 20 languages.

Select the language you want your child to speak and enjoy the ride.

Visit Dino Lingo to learn more about available language learning programs for your child!

Visit Dino Lingo to learn more about available language learning programs for your child!

 

Top Ten Reasons Why Speaking Two Languages Is Cool

Top Ten Reasons Why Speaking Two Languages Is Cool

10. I can have private conversations in my second language.

9. When I told (friend, teacher, neighbor) that I speak two languages, s/he was thrilled/very impressed.

8. I can meet more people from around the world (list of potential places where your child can meet people who speak the second language).

7. Many athletes are bilingual, like Yao Ming, Roger Federer, and Maria Sharapova.

6. I can wear and read clothes that have the print of the second language.

5. Many of my favorite celebrities like Antonio Banderas, Jennifer Lopez, or Yo-Yo Ma speak two languages, or more!

4. I can make more friends (list the names of your child’s bilingual friends here).

3. After finishing school, I’ll be able to get an awesome job that pays more, like………

2. I can help other people communicate who don’t speak two languages.

1. I feel proud and good about myself.

Source: King, K., & Mackey, A. (2007). The bilingual edge: Why, when, and how to teach your child a second language. New York: Collins (p. 242-243)

About Dino Lingo

Dino Lingo, language for children. Award winning language DVDs, books, CDs, flash cards, songs,  online videos and games for kids. DinoLingo language lessons make learning fun for children and easy for parents.Now, babies and children can master any language. Available in 20 languages.

Select the language you want your child to speak and enjoy the ride.

Visit Dino Lingo to learn more about available language learning programs for your child!

Visit Dino Lingo to learn more about available language learning programs for your child!

 

Types of bilingual education


TYPES OF BILINGUAL EDUCATION

“Maintenance bilingual education: These programs are to help children become both and biliterate. In the United States, students in such programs typically speak a language other than English at home.

Transitional bilingual education: These programs aim to help children transition from their native language for example, Spanish, Cambodian, Portuguese, Arabic) to the language of the ma ority culture (in the United States, English . Content matter is taught in the child’s first language initially and the child simultaneously receives instruction in English as a second language. Later, the child is moved into classes taught in English for all sub ects.

Immersion bilingual education: Students are generally native speakers of a ma ority language for example, in the United States, this means children are English speakers , and 50 percent or more of the content matter is taught in a second language (percentages vary across schools). The idea is that students are fully immersed in the second language throughout the school day.

Two-way (or dual-language) immersion bilingual education:

These programs aim to help native speakers of a language other than English (such as Spanish) to learn English, while at the same time helping children who already speak English to learn this other language. Children from both language groups are together much of the day, and content matter instruction is delivered in both languages. The goal of these programs is to help promote bilingualism, biliteracy, and crosscultural understanding for all.

(Source: http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/expert/glossary.html this link doe snot work although listed on King & Mackey, )”

Code-mixing is typically shortterm phase for children learning two languages. This is perfectly normal and quite common.

Many of the skills that children develop to learn a second language can be used to learn a third. (p.229)

On page 51 King nad Mackey state that Baby Sign language does NOT make babies smarter

Source: King, K., & Mackey, A. (2007). The bilingual edge: Why, when, and how to teach your child a second language. New York: Collins


About Dino Lingo

Dino Lingo, language for children. Award winning language DVDs, books, CDs, flash cards, songs,  online videos and games for kids. DinoLingo language lessons make learning fun for children and easy for parents.Now, babies and children can master any language. Available in 20 languages.

Select the language you want your child to speak and enjoy the ride.

Visit Dino Lingo to learn more about available language learning programs for your child!

Visit Dino Lingo to learn more about available language learning programs for your child!

 

How to Create a Good Language Learning Environments for Preschoolers


How to Create a Good Language Learning Environments for Preschoolers

• Have fun integrating the language as a part of your daily routines. For example, sing morning songs in the language, play alphabet and counting games, guessing games, and have a word of the day.

• Read stories to your child in the language. Keep these light, fun, and brief. Encourage your child to interact with the book and you (for example, together, act out the stories, use funny faces, give voice to the characters).

• Find other children who speak the target language for your child to play with. Make these language dates fun by providing props (treats and toys, musical instruments, scavenger hunts). Children learn a lot from each other. Even finding children a bit older than your child will provide positive “big boy” role models.

• Look for games in the target language, including things like board games and flash cards that encourage interactions.

• Find funny cartoons and characters that use the target language.

• Use crafts as an opportunity to speak and interact in the target language. Consider making cultural learning opportunities out of the craft time as well.

• Play songs in the second language in the car or use headphones on public transport.

• Be enthusiastic and positive about learning the language.

• Don’t be overly focused on perfection or correction, instead focus on what your child has achieved.

(p.67-68)

Source: King, K., & Mackey, A. (2007). The bilingual edge: Why, when, and how to teach your child a second language. New York: Collins

About Dino Lingo

Dino Lingo, language for children. Award winning language DVDs, books, CDs, flash cards, songs,  online videos and games for kids. DinoLingo language lessons make learning fun for children and easy for parents.Now, babies and children can master any language. Available in 20 languages.

Select the language you want your child to speak and enjoy the ride.

 

Visit Dino Lingo to learn more about available language learning programs for your child!

Visit Dino Lingo to learn more about available language learning programs for your child!

 

Top Ten Myths Regarding Bilingualism

Visit Dino Lingo to learn more about available language learning programs for your child!

Visit Dino Lingo to learn more about available language learning programs for your child!

THE TOP TEN MYTHS ABOUT SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING

1. Only bilingual parents can raise bilingual children and bilingual parents always raise bilingual children

2. I’m too late! You have to start very early for second language learning or you will miss the boat.

3. Only native speakers and teachers can teach children second

4. Children who are raised in the same family will have the same language skills as one another.

5. It’s important to correct errors as soon as they appear in grammar and vocabulary (to prevent the formation of bad habits.

6. Exposing my child to two languages means she will be a late talker.

7. Mixing languages is a sign of confusion, and languages must stay separate one-parent–one-language parenting is the best way).

8. Television, DVDs, and edutainment, like talking toys, are great ways to pick up some languages.

9. Bilingual education programs are for non-English speakers.

10. Two languages are the most to which a very young child should b exposed. (pg. 18)

Newborns are able to hear and pick up any of the world’s languages. However, this ability begins to fade at around ten months of age. “(p. 40)


About Dino Lingo

Dino Lingo, language for children. Award winning language DVDs, books, CDs, flash cards, songs,  online videos and games for kids. DinoLingo language lessons make learning fun for children and easy for parents.Now, babies and children can master any language. Available in 20 languages.

Select the language you want your child to speak and enjoy the ride.

English  Japanese  Arabic  French  Italian  Portuguese  Turkish  Spanish  Latin  Chinese  German  Korean  Russian  Urdu  Greek  Hindi  Dutch  Hebrew  Polish  Swedish

Pros and Cons of a bilingual household


Is speaking a minority language (e,g, Spanish) at home is better or worse?

King and Mackey mention a very interesting study which found that it’s almost better to speak the minority language at home

After comparing two groups (group 1: mixed families speaking Engish at home , group 2: mixed families speaking Spanish at home) “Dolson (1985) found that the two groups performed similarly in terms of (1) English reading skills, (2) oral reading skills, (3) length of time classified as Limited English Proficient by the school, (4) attendance rates, and (5) disciplinary referrals. He found that the children from Spanishspeaking homes performed significantly better on measures of (1) mathematics skills, (2) Spanish reading vocabulary, (3) academic grade point average, (4) effort grade point average, and (5) retention. This work strongly suggests that there are important advantages (and no apparent disadvantages) to continuing to use Spanish at home.” (p. 114)

Source: King, K., & Mackey, A. (2007). The bilingual edge: Why, when, and how to teach your child a second language. New York: Collins


About Dino Lingo

Dino Lingo, language for children. Award winning language DVDs, books, CDs, flash cards, songs,  online videos and games for kids. DinoLingo language lessons make learning fun for children and easy for parents.Now, babies and children can master any language. Available in 20 languages.

Select the language you want your child to speak and enjoy the ride.

 

Visit Dino Lingo to learn more about available language learning programs for your child!

Visit Dino Lingo to learn more about available language learning programs for your child!