What Parents Want to Know about Bilingualism


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It’s generally recognized that most people across the globe are bilingual or multilingual and use 2 or more languages or dialects in everyday life. And the diversity of bilinguals within multicultural societies continues to grow. Beyond sharing fascinating facts about how this came to be (Bilingualism’s Best Kept Secret), Prof. Grosjean addresses 11 of the most frequently asked questions by parents and carers (collated by Corey Heller, founder of Multilingual Living). Here they are below with bullet point summary answers (but please feel free to click on the link for the original, full article):

What parents want to know about bilingualism
(Also published in The Bilingual Family Newsletter, 2009, 26(4), 1-6.)

How can one tell if children are getting enough exposure to each language?

  • Since there is no good measure of ‘enough’, maximize and balance input, aiming for a daily basis especially for children to be able to use, not just understand, languages
  • Interaction with people is better than just watching TV or DVDs
  • Ensure there are monolingual situations for each language where children have to use the same language (and cannot code-switch)

Which is the “best” method for helping children become bilingual (e.g. one parent – one language, the minority language at home, etc.)?

  • Prof Grosjean prefers and recommends minority language at home: Although one of the parents has to speak their second (or third) language, and the language will need to be reinforced by other people to give it a strong base, the majority (community/school) language has less problem finding its place; the weaker language (the home language) will receive much more input than if only one parent uses it, and it can be easier for the child to associate one language at home, another outside.
  • However, each method has its pros and cons and the effectiveness will depend on the child, parents, local circumstances, etc.

Is it all right to change from one method to another or one language to another in the home?

  • Changes in circumstances may require changes in method but the genuine, communicative need for both languages is fundamental to ensure their continued use (not just a ‘need’ imposed by parents!)
  • If children are old enough, discussing changes in strategy with them can help transition

What does research say, in layman’s terms, about the benefits of bilingualism / multilingualism over monolingualism?

  • More recent studies suggest bilinguals outperform monolinguals in certain tasks, for example, involving selective control; they perform just as well with analysis of representations; and sometimes do less well in monolingual vocabulary tests (where their other language may be dominant)
  • Prof. Grosjean warns people to be wary of older studies due to lack of control factors

Is it all right to raise a child in a non-native language, even if parents don’t speak the language absolutely perfectly (but well enough) and they don’t have a perfect native accent (but it is good enough)?

  • Again, having a genuine need to use the languages is key, together with supporting factors, such as the amount and type of input (as mentioned above)

Are there specific golden rules that every family should follow about raising children in more than one language?

  • Although every family and situation is different, Prof. Grosjean first highlights the value of understanding the factors that promote additional language acquisition, emphazing ‘the need factor’, language input, the roles of the family, school and community, as well as attitudes towards the language, the culture, and bilingualism. Again, Prof. Grosjean points out the importance of monolingual situations to facilitate genuine communicative need.
  • Support for parents and children to understand what it means to be bi-/multilingual as well as bi-/multicultural is also invaluable and often key to ensuring the process is mostly a positive experience, despite the inevitable challenges

Is it worth it for a spouse to speak his/her language even if they are only with the child a little bit of the time?

  • Even if exposure is limited, some is better than none, and one never knows what role a language may play in the child’s future

How should one deal with more than two languages in the family and how can one add an additional language to an already bilingual household?

  • Once again, Prof. Grosjean stresses ‘the need factor’ and setting up monolingual situations for each language 

What will happen to the children’s bilingualism when they start going to school in the community language?

  • The community language will likely become the dominant language
  • Children may try to use it exclusively with their parents, especially from around 6 years old until their early teens, often so as not to feel ‘different’ 

What should be done when children have been diagnosed with a speech impediment and they are told that their bilingualism / multilingualism is the cause? Is it all right to go against what the speech therapist / school therapist may say and still speak a native language at home?

  • “Bilingualism researcher and speech therapist, Susanne Döpke, states clearly that bilingualism is not the cause of language delay and language disorders”
  • Moreover, “…discontinuing the home language is not going to improve the bilingual child’s abilities in the majority (school) language; on the contrary, it may have other prejudicial consequences” 

What about cultural issues such as bilingual children assimilating into the community while also retaining their connection to the parents’ cultures?

  • Being mindful of what it means to be bicultural and how that affects children’s sense of identity is important
  • Some children reject one language/cultural identity over the other, and a few reject both, but most seem to eventually accept both to varying degrees and, “…biculturals who are allowed to be who they are, and who accept their dual heritage, are invaluable members of society who bridge the gap between the cultures they belong to”

 

As parents, we not only find ourselves thinking about questions such as the ones above, but also need to focus on the day-to-day practicalities and longer term. Our earlier blog entry, How to Raise a Bilingual Child, covers a number of key points in brief, from starting as early as possible with a consistent language policy (e.g. One Parent One Language or Minority Language At Home) to understanding individual differences and development, the critical period, and what motivates you as well as your child.

 

Fortunately, whatever your situation these days, there is a wealth of resources and support online, as well as an increasing number of multicultural communities and grassroots movements. For example, Multilingual Living, offers an excellent advice from getting started and teaching at home to being a non-native and addressing common problems. And for me, trying to raise our kids tri-lingually/culturally and not sure where we may go in the world, one thing that particularly stands out about Dino Lingo is that it’s actually much more than a bilingual site due to all the multilingual options.

Authored by: Philip Shigeo Brown

More about Dino Lingo learning sets for bilingual children

HOW TO TEACH KIDS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE

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Start Simple

Start with some simple greetings and every day words.

E.g. good morning/ how are you? Be consistent, use the words or phrases you have chosen every day.  Items in your environment that you see or use every day can be used repeatedly and naturally in the 2nd language.

Here you are/thank you, good morning/goodnight,

Ball, dog, cup, door etc. are useful and easy to use naturally everyday.  Use the language naturally and be patient for your child to use it back to you. Slowly introduce new words and phrases but continue to use the ones your child has learned.

1

Treats

After doing particularly well, or completing a set goal, why not treat your child. It could be something simple like going out for an ice cream, or make a surprise picnic and eat together in a local park.

2

 

The Element of Surprise.

 

Add an element of surprise to things, surprises have been proven to increase motivation. Play hide and seek and count in the 2nd language, or vary hide and seek and take turns to hide an object, such as a ball, use the 2nd language word for it as you hunt.  For very young children, Peekaboo is lots of fun.

 

3

Make It Fun.

Always make it fun! How about a field trip to a park, a zoo or an aquarium? Talk about what you see in the 2nd language. Name the animals at the zoo or aquarium. Or have fun with a board game like snakes and ladders or bingo.

They will pick up word very quickly when they are focused on the fun of the game.

5

 

Short and Simple.

 

Kids lose interest quickly if the task is too difficult so only give them a few words at a time to learn. They will learn much more when they are interested and they will gain confidence. Confidence is paramount, give them the satisfaction of feeling, “I can do it’. Tell them often, ‘you can do it’.

6

Monitor Progress.

Test your child’s knowledge frequently. Instead of a written test you can use worksheets or just ask simple questions like show me your “はな”(nose) or give me the ”ボール.”  A game like Simon says is good for reviewing body parts and simple actions.

7

Set Clear Goals

Have clear goals about your target for the end of the year. Do you want to teach a) greetings and basics b) conversational competence, c) reading and writing skill, d) native level competence, e) etc. Keep your goal in mind and always be working towards it. Take time to look back and see how far you’ve come.

8

Combine Digital and Traditional Materials

Applications and language DVDs are good but also use traditional hands on materials such as flashcards and picture dictionaries. Watch how your child uses the materials and where they do best and follow that lead. Kids learn in different ways so pay observe how your child learns best and enjoys what they are doing.

9

Use Your Connections

Ask grandparents, neighbours and relatives if its OK to have a Skype chat with them. Language aside it is good for your child to create and maintain bonds with relatives overseas. Connecting with likeminded people is important for you too. Facebook groups are a good resource for support and information, or find an online forum or chat group for exchanging ideas and working out any problems you might experience.

 

10

Teachers

Let your child’s kindergarten teacher or caregiver know about your aim of raising a bilingual child. It’s important that other people in your child’s life know what you are doing and can be supportive. Teachers at kindergarten or other caregivers can make sure that your child doesn’t experience any difficulties among their friends/peers.

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by http://dinolingo.com/jp/

Say ” Happy Birthday” in a different language

 

Chinese - 生日快乐 - Shēngrì kuàilè

German - Herzlichen Glückwunsch zum Geburtstag

Japanese - お誕生日おめでとうございます - Otanjōbiomedetōgozaimasu

Dutch - gelukkige verjaardag

Arabic - عيد ميلاد سعيد

Czech - všechno nejlepší k narozeninám

Greek - χαρούμενα γενέθλια - charoúmena genéthlia

Finnish - Hyvää syntymäpäivää

Turkish – Mutlu yıllar

French - joyeux anniversaire

Hebrew - יום הולדת שמח

Polish - z okazji urodzin

Hindi - जन्मदिन की शुभकामनाएँ - Janmadina kī śubhakāmanā’ēm

Russian - С ДНЕМ РОЖДЕНИЯ - S DNEM ROZHDENIYA

Italian - Compleanno felice

Korean - 생일 축하합니다  - saeng-il chughahabnida

Japanese - お誕生日おめでとうございます - Otanjōbiomedetōgozaimasu

Portuguese - feliz aniversário

Spanish - feliz cumpleaños

Swedish - Grattis på födelsedagen

Romanian - fericit ziua de naştere

Norwegian - Gratulerer med dagen

Vietnamese - Chúc mừng sinh nhật

Ukranian - днем народження - dnem narodzhennya

Urdu - سالگِرہ مبارک - salgirah mubarak

Thai - สุขสันต์วันเกิด - sook sun wan gerd

Malay - Selamat hari lahir

Latin - Felix dies natalis

Language learning for kids

Popular Children’s Literature of Italy

-          Aesop’s Fables (Dover Children’s Thrift Classics):

(Author- Aesop, Pat Stewart) Ages 4 to 8

-          The Adventures of Pinocchio: The Story of a Puppet:

(Author- Carlo Collodi, Iassen Ghiuselev)  Ages 9 to 12

-          Pompeii:

(Author- Peter Connolly) Ages 9 to 12

-          The Buried City of Pompeii: What It Was Like When Vesuvius Exploded (I Was There):

(Author: Shelley Tanaka, Greg Ruhl)

            Ages  9 to 12

-          Vulca the Etruscan (Journey Through Time Series):

(Author: Roberta Angeletti, Beatrice Masini) Ages 8 to 12

-          Leonardo and the Flying Boy:

(Author: Laurence Anholt) Ages 8 to 14

-          Bravo, Zan Angelo!: A Commedia Dell’Arte Tale With Story & Pictures:

(Author: Niki Daly) Age 10+

-          The Legend of Old Befana:

(Author: Tomie De Paola) Ages 4 to 10

-           Big Anthony: His Story:

(Author: Tomie De Paola) Ages 4 to 8

-          Opera Cat:

(Author: Tess Weaver, Andrea Wesson) Ages 4 to 8

Read more

Inventions for Kids: French Inventions, DID YOU KNOW???

  • AQUALUNG: a breathing apparatus that supplied oxygen to divers and allowed them to stay underwater for several hours. It was invented in 1943 by Jacques-Yves Cousteau.
  • BAROMETER: a device that measures air (barometric) pressure. It measures the weight of the column of air that extends from the instrument to the top of the atmosphere. There are two types of barometers commonly used today, mercury and aneroid (meaning “fluidless”). Earlier water barometers (also known as “storm glasses”) date from the 17th century. The mercury barometer was invented by the Italian physicist Evangelista Torricelli.
  • BATTERY: a device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy. Each battery has two electrodes, an anode (the positive end) and a cathode (the negative end). An electrical circuit runs between these two electrodes, going through a chemical called an electrolyte (which can be either liquid or solid). This unit consisting of two electrodes is called a cell (often called a voltaic cell or pile). It was invented by Alessandro Volta.
  • BICYCLE: a wooden scooter-like contraption called a celerifere; it was invented about 1790 by Comte Mede de Sivrac of France.
  • ELECTRIC IRON: The electric iron was invented in 1882 by Henry W. Seeley
  • MAYONNAISE: invented in France hundreds of years ago, probably in 1756 by the French chef working for the Duke de Richelieu, The first ready-made mayonnaise was sold in the US in 1905 at Richard Hellman’s deli in New York.
  • METER (and the METRIC SYSTEM): Was invented in France. In 1790, the French National Assembly directed the Academy of Sciences of Paris to standardize the units of measurement. A committee from the Academy used a decimal system and defined the meter to be one 10-millionths of the distance from the equator to the Earth’s Pole (that is, the Earth’s circumference would be equal to 40 million meters). The committee included the mathematicians Jean Charles de Borda (1733-1799), Joseph-Louis Comte de Lagrange (1736-1813), Pierre-Simon Laplace (1749-1827), Gaspard Monge (1746 -1818), and Marie Jean Antoine Nicholas Caritat, the Marquis de Condorcet (1743-1794).
  • PENCIL: invented in 1564 when a huge graphite (black carbon) mine was discovered in England. The pure graphite was sawn into sheets and then cut into square rods. The graphite rods were inserted into hand-carved wooden holders, forming pencils.

Read more

Historical French Figures: From Disney to Helping the Blind See

William the Conqueror actual French name is Guillaume le Conquérant, and he was Duke of Normandy, a large area of northern France.  He is a historical figure of France because in 1066 he took his army across the Channel, and killed the English King, Harold, and most of the English nobles in the Battle of Hastings. He conquered England and put his Norman followers as leaders. His knights built strong castles like Dover, and his bishops built fine cathedrals like Canterbury. For 300 years, the King of England and all the important people in the country spoke only French. Today, English still has thousands of words which come from French.

Claude Monet is an artist, the leading member of the Impressionist painters. His most famous painting is the “Water-lillies” which he painted in the elaborate garden he had made for himself.

Claude-Achille Debussy was a French composer whose work is often linked with the Impressionist painters. He is famous for piano pieces such as “Children’s Corner” and his orchestral work “The Afternoon of a Faun” (“L’apès-midi d’une faune”).

Alexandre Dumas wrote the two historically known adventure classics “The Three Musketeers” and “The Count of Monte Cristo”.

Victor Hugo credited forDisney film and video “The Hunchback of Notre Dame”. The original novel was written by Victor Hugo and is known in France as “Notre Dame de Paris”.

Antoine de Saint-Exupéry is theauthor of “Le Petit Prince” a well- known French children’s book.

Napoléon Bonaparte was a famous French general who became Emperor of France in the aftermath of the French Revolution. Napoleon was responsible for introducing measures which form the basis of many of France’s institutions that still exist today, including an educational law to set up state grammar schools (lycés) which aimed to provide well-trained army officers and civil servants. During Napoleon’s reign France was constantly at war. Napoleon built a huge empire, so that by 1812 he controlled the greater part of Western Europe. Eventually he was defeated when France was invaded by Russian, Prussian, Austrian and British armies. Finally, Napoleon was exiled to the island of Elba. He managed to escape and ruled France again for just a hundred days before being defeated by Wellington at Waterloo. He was sent as a prisoner to St. Helena, where he died in 1821.

Louis Blériot is credited as a French airman who became the first person to fly the English Channel. On 25 July 1909 he flew from Calais to Dover in 37 minutes.

Louis Braille is credited towards inventing the system of raised dots which form letters for the visually impaired to read. Louis was blinded in an accident at the age of 4. He was sent to one of the first schools for blind boys in Paris, where they were taught simple skills to help them earn a living without begging. Without being able to read, it was difficult for blind people to have much education. The system is now used everywhere in the world.

Ferdinand de Lesseps is credited towards building the Suez Canal – regarded at the time as the world’s greatest engineering triumph, and tried but failed to build a Panama Canal.

Read more

Conflict in Mixed Families and Conflict Resolution with Foreign Partners

How to deal with conflict in mixed marriages
  1. •Don’t give examples from your own country
  2. •Apologize even if it means you’ll lose the face
  3. •Never use generalizations about his/her country/culture/family even if he/she previously accepted that (e.g. we,…s usually are not punctual)
  4. •Don’t touch and don’t get so close, different cultures have different use of proximity
  5. •Check your voice and make sure you’re not too loud according to your spouse’s culture
  6. •Don’t talk about the past that (naturally) cannot be changed
  7. •Don’t say it was a misunderstanding or a language problem
  8. •Try to think like a person from his/her culture (force yourself)
  9. •Try to find something (even 1%) of what he/she says and agree with it 100%
  10. •Don’t interrupt and listen very carefully
  11. •Rephrase his/her problem in your own words
  12. •Never try to WIN the argument (when you win the argument, relationship loses)
  13. •Instead of YOU statements try to make I statements
  14. •Think about alternative solutions to the problem
  15. •State that you understand the other side and you are willing to solve the problem
  16. •Remember some people overreact when they lose face (e.g. when their mistake is revealed)
  17. •Remember different cultures have different values (e.g. yes, in some cultures work/responsibility comes before family)
  18. •Remember most conflicts arise because one side misinterprets the other side’s true intention
  19. •Remember, sometimes it might be a gender difference issue (men and women think differently) or a personality issue (introverts and extroverts act differently) rather than a cultural issue.
  20. •Don’t avoid conflict see it as an opportunity to strengthen your relationship.

 

Czech culture for children – Fun facts, food, music, language and more…

Children’s Games of Czech

1)      Pesek (Duck -Duck Goose): For this game, all of the children sit down in a circle, facing one another. There is one child that is “it”, and they sing a song while going around in a circle. The person who is “it” goes around singing the song until he or she taps one of the seated children on the head, and once that person is tapped, they chase the person who is “it” until the person who is “it” takes the newly tapped child’s position on the floor. This game has no definite ending, and can go on as long as the children wish to play it.

Common Czech Cuisines

The traditional Czech cuisine consists of roast pork, with sour kraut and dumplings. Some popular foods all have the same sides, like soups, potatoes, and more. While the Czech Republic has recently turned the cuisine over to a healthier menu, one cannot forget what meals make the Czech cuisines memorable.

Popular soups: potato, garlic, and chicken noodle

Popular Main Dishes: Chicken, Pork, Beef, or Fish. Usually roasted, certain meats are served during certain events and certain times of the year. For example, Carp (a fish) is served only at certain times a year.

Popular Appetizers/Side Dishes: Boiled, Roasted, and Mashed Potatoes, Dumplings, Rice, and Bread

Popular Czech Sweets

If its sweet bread, it’s a popular Czechoslovakian dessert. Some common sweet treats of the Czech Republic includes, but are not limited to the following; pancakes, yeast cakes, fruit filled dumplings, sugar dumplings, and more. Strawberry cookies and galache are just two examples of the deliciousness served on occasion. Like in the United States, the Czech Republic enjoys cake as well, such as poppy seed and vanilla. Vanilla crescents, pecan cookies, and so much more are common desserts in Czechoslovakia.

Read more

Simple Czech Cuisine Recipes

  1. Yeast Dumplings
  • Ingredients: 1/2 package dry yeast, 1 cubed bread roll, 2 cups warm water, 4 cups instant flour, 1 egg, 1 teaspoon sugar, 2 tablespoon salt
  • Directions: – Dissolve yeast in lukewarm water with sugar

-In a big bowl combine flour, salt, egg and bread roll. After yeast rises, add to mixture and knead for 10 minutes. Form 4 rolls on a sheet with flour. Cover and let rise.

-Boil salted water and gently place in water – maybe one or two at a time. Cover and cook about 20 minutes.

-Test for doneness with toothpick. It should be light and puffy. Remove from water and slice.

2. Pancakes (Palačinky)

  • Ingredients: 2 eggs, am, fresh fruit or even Nutella for spreading, pinch of salt, 1/4 cup butter for pan, 3 tbs sugar, 2 cups flour, 2 cups milk
  • Directions: -Beat together eggs, salt, sugar milk, and flour until smooth. Heat a non-stick frying pan and brush with butter.

-Pour a thick layer of batter into the pan – spreading it to cover the base of the pan. The pancakes should be very thin. The thinner the better.

-Fry on both sides until golden brown. Spread with filling of your choice and roll into a tube. Sprinkle with powdered sugar or add whipped cream a cherry and be creative.

3. Garlic Dip

  • Ingredients: 2 tablespoons mayonnaise, 3 garlic cloves, minced, 1 tablespoon sour cream, 1/2 cup shredded cheese (muenster, mozzarella, etc.)
  • Directions: -Shred cheese coarsely. Combine mayonnaise, sour cream, and shredded cheese.

-Use a garlic press to mince the garlic directly over cheese mixture, Mix well and serve.

Children’s Games

The citizens of Czech Republic celebrate Children’s Day on June 1st annually. On this day, families take their children to local churches and parks, in which the parks hold carnivals and fun events for the kids of the republic. This day celebrates peace, harmony, and great health of all children.

3 Must Go See’s

  1. Prague City Center: one of the most visited areas; it is a central point of Prague. Here is where one can find shops, amusement centers, restaurants, and so much more. Many visitors and citizens visit here for a great time, or wonderful sights to see as well.
  2. Petrin Lookout Tower: 60 meters high, this tower is compared to the Eiffel Tower. Many people use the lift to get to the top, which hovers on the hill over the city. It’s a major tourist attraction.
  3. Prague Castle: Holding the Bohemian crown jewels on display, everyone who visits has no other option than to stop at the most common viewed place in Prague. Standing as one
  • of the grandest and largest castles in the world, it holds many cathedrals, museums, galleries, and gardens.

Festivals/Celebrations of Czech Republic

  1. New Year’s: While tourists fill the streets of Prague, the local citizens escape the city for the mountains. Regardless of where everyone is, everyone engages in the festivities of fireworks and family time to bring in the New Year.
  2. Folklore Festival: This festival celebrates the history of Prague. For three days, colorful mini festivals fill the city, with food, music and much dancing in the streets.
  3. Easter: The tradition of Easter in Prague is for a young boy to chase a girl with branches and switches, to ward off ugliness for a year, and the girl must give the young boy a colorful egg.

Fun Facts

  • Czech people are the heaviest beer consumers
  • There are 2000 castles in the Czech Republic
  • The official language of Czech Republic is Czech.
  • About 59% of the population is agnostic, atheist, or non-believer. About 26.8% is Roman Catholic while 2.5% is Protestant.
  • The country has four national parks, the oldest being Krkonoše National Park (Biosphere Reserve). The other three are Šumava National Park (Biosphere Reserve), National Park Podyjí, and Èeské Švýcarsko National Park.
  • The former tennis champion Martina Navratilova, statistically the second best female player of the 20th century behind Steffi Graf, is a Czech.

Czech Customs and Culture

-          Do not go to someone else’s home without bringing flowers, or a sweet treat

-          You are expected to remove your shoes upon visiting someone’s home, most homes will have slippers for you

-          Czech culture means less private space, culturally, they are a lot closer than Western civilization

-          They seldom call people by their first name, unless they are family

-          Initial greetings are formal and reserved

-          The oldest woman or honored guest is generally served first.

Sounds of the Czech Republic

Traditional Czech Republic music requires traditional instruments. Majority of the instruments used are handmade, and are done so delicately. The wood chosen for these instruments is an intricate process in itself, as the trees used for them have to be at least 100 or more years old. Fiddles, drums, and accordions are some examples, but the saxophone is a widely used instrument as well. Some traditional music genres of the Czech Republic includes but are not limited to; modern music, folk music, alternative music, jazz, and the blues. One of the most notable Czech Republic marks of music is the “Underground Movement,” which battled conformity, political oppression, and consumerism. In the 1960’s, the communist government did not agree with this movement, as it was a “threat to society.” Yet, Westernized music does not fail to make its way to the Czech Republic for the younger generation who is not as into traditional music as their elders.

Czech Attire

A lot of Czech Republic clothing is determined by the area and time period of which it derived, and its purpose.

-          Blata: Lying in the České Budějovice, Tábor, Jindřichův Hradec and Vodňany regions, the women’s clothing is decorated lavishly, and extremely embroidered. The Plena is the most common part of any clothing outfit, and resembles a decent sized scarf. In the 19th century, chemises were added to it as embroidery, an in the early 20th century late 19th century, beads were added as well.

-          Doudlebsko: This area is in South Bohemia. This area is the poorer region, and their clothing reflects it. Their clothing is less lavish, and less embroidered, rather simple and plain. Males are often seen wearing bearskin trousers, a shirt, and a hat. Belts are worn to carry money, not for fashion.

These are just a couple of examples. Clothing depends on the region, the status of the individual and/or family, and the time period of which the clothing was introduced to the Czech society.

 

Czech culture for children – Children’s Games

Children’s Games

The citizens of Czech Republic celebrate Children’s Day on June 1st annually. On this day, families take their children to local churches and parks, in which the parks hold carnivals and fun events for the kids of the republic. This day celebrates peace, harmony, and great health of all children.

 

Communication in Mixed Families: How to Communicate with A Foreign Partner

  1. •Both partners should be more interested in giving than receiving.
  2. •There should be at least one language in which both partners are fluent.
  3. •Partners should never “assume” anything just because it’s common sense in their own culture.