Persia is a large country in the Middle East between the Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf and the CaspianSea. It is bordered by Iraq to the west, Turkey, Azerbaijan’s Naxcivan enclave, Armenia, and Axerbaijan to the northwest, Turkmenistan to the northeast and Afghanistan and Pakistan to the southeast.
The winters in Iran are very cold with heavy snowfall and below zero temperatures. Fall and spring are mild, while summers are hot and dry. In southern Iran, winters are mild and the summers are very hot with daily temperatures in July over 38° C (100° F). In the desert, temperatures can hit 50° C. Many parts of Iran have little rainfall. The land is a mixture of rugged, mountains and a high central basin with deserts.
The Zagros range stretches from the border with Armenia to the Persian Gulf and eastward. Only nomads live here. The Alborz mountain range is narrower and runs along the southern shore of the Caspian region. There are two large deserts extending over much of the middle of Iran. Plains run along the coast with rich, forest soil.